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Lipid profile is accessed mainly as a part of  cardiac risk assessment.  It will help to determine an individual’s risk of heart diseases, thus help him to make decisions about what the treatment may be. Lipids are a group of fats and fat-like substances that are important constituents of cells and sources of energy. Monitoring and maintaining healthy levels of these lipids are important in staying healthy.   Lipid profile Tests includes

Total Cholesterol. This test measures all of the cholesterol in all the lipoprotein particles.

  • High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) which measures the cholesterol in HDL particles, often called “good cholesterol” because it removes excess cholesterol and carries it to the liver for removal.
  • Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) which  calculates the cholesterol in LDL particles; often called “bad cholesterol” because it deposits excess cholesterol in walls of blood vessels, which can contribute toatherosclerosis.  Usually, the amount of LDL-C is calculated using the results of total cholesterol, HDL-C, and triglycerides.
  • Triglycerides which measures all the triglycerides in all the lipoprotein particles. Most is in the very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL).
  • Very Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL), calculated from triglycerides/5. This formula is based on the typical composition of VLDL particles.
  • Non-HDL is calculated from total cholesterol minus HDL

When Test is needed? It is recommended that healthy adults with no other risk factors forheart diseases be tested with a fasting  lipid profile once every four to six years. Initial screening may involve only a single test fortotal cholesterol and  not a full lipid profile. However, if the screening cholesterol test result is high, it will likely be followed by testing with a lipid profile.   Risk Factors

  • Cigarette smoking
  • Age (if you are a male 45 years or older or a female 50-55 years or older)

Low HDL (less than 40 mg/dL (1.04 mmol/L) Hypertension (blood pressure of 140/90 or higher or taking high blood pressure medications)

  • Family history of premature heart disease (heart disease in a first degree male relative under age 55 or a first degree female relative under age 65)
  • Diabetes