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A Renal (Kidney) Function Test primarily evaluates the functioning of kidney. RFT also help to monitor the progression of renal insufficiency and aid in the diagnosis of kidney disease.
There are three basic test to evaluate renal (Kidney) function.
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN ) Test provides a rough measurement of the glomerular filtration
(a rate at which blood is filtered in the kidneys) rate . Urea is formed in the liver as an end product of protein metabolism and is carried to the kidneys for excretion. All most all kidney diseases cause inadequate excretion of urea, elevating BUN levels in the blood. It can be done to determine the amount of urea nitrogen in the blood.
Creatinine is an important component of muscle. The production of creatinine depends on muscle mass, which varies very little. Creatinine is excreted exclusively by the kidneys, and its level in the blood is proportional to the glomerular filtration rate. The serum creatinine level (serum is the clear liquid that remains after whole blood has clotted) provides a more sensitive test of kidney function.
Creatinine clearance rate determines how efficiently the kidneys are clearing creatinine from the blood and serves as an estimate of kidney function. For renal function test, urine and serum levels of creatinine are measured, as well as the volume of urine excreted over a 24-hour period. The creatinine clearance rate is then calculated and expressed as the volume of blood, in milliliters, that can be cleared of creatinine in 1 minute. A low creatinine clearance value indicates abnormal kidney function. It requires both a urine and blood sample.